10.18. Tense negation

Any bridi which involves tenses of selma'o PU, FAhA, or ZAhO can be contradicted by a -nai suffixed to the tense cmavo. Some examples:

Example 10.129. 

mipunaiklamalezarci
I[past-not]go-tothemarket.

I didn't go to the market.


As a contradictory negation, Example 10.129 implies that the bridi as a whole is false without saying anything about what is true. When the negated tense is a sumti tcita, -nai negation indicates that the stated relationship does not hold:

Example 10.130. 

miklamalezarcicanai
Igo-tothemarket[present][not]
lenudoklamalezdani
theevent-ofyougo-tothehouse.

It is not true that I went to the market at the same time that you went to the house.


Example 10.131. 

lenanmucubatcilegerkune'inailekumfa
Theman bitesthedog[within-not]theroom.

The man didn't bite the dog inside the room.


Example 10.132. 

mimorsica'onailenumijmive
Iam-dead[continuitive-negated]theevent-ofIlive.

It is false that I am dead during my life.


It is also possible to perform scalar negation of whole tense constructs by placing a member of NAhE before them. Unlike contradictory negation, scalar negation asserts a truth: that the bridi is true with some tense other than that specified. The following examples are scalar negation analogues of Example 10.129 to Example 10.131:

Example 10.133. 

mina'epuklamalezarci
I[non-][past]go-tothemarket.

I go to the market other than in the past.


Example 10.134. 

lenanmucubatcilegerkuto'ene'ilekumfa
Theman bitesthedog[opposite-of][within]theroom.

The man bites the dog outside the room.


Example 10.135. 

miklamalezarcina'ecalenu
Igo-tothemarket[non-][present]theevent-of
doklamalezdani
yougo-tothehouse.

I went to the market at a time other than the time at which you went to the house.


Example 10.136. 

mimorsina'eca'olenumijmive
Iam-dead[non-][continuitive]theevent-ofIlive.

I am dead other than during my life.


Unlike -nai contradictory negation, scalar negation of tenses is not limited to PU and FAhA:

Example 10.137. 

leverbana'eri'ucadzulebisli
Thechild[non-][right]walks-ontheice

The child walks on the ice other than to my right.


The use of -nai on cmavo of TAhE and ROI has already been discussed in Section 10.1; this use is also a scalar negation.