10.17. Tensed logical connectives

The Lojban tense system interacts with the Lojban logical connective system. That system is a separate topic, explained in Chapter 10 and touched on only in summary here. By the rules of the logical connective system, Example 10.117 through Example 10.119 are equivalent in meaning:

Example 10.117. 

la.teris.cusatrelemlatu.ijela.teris.cusatreleractu

Terry strokes the cat. And Terry strokes the rabbit.


Example 10.118. 

la.teris.cusatrelemlatugi'esatreleractu

Terry strokes the cat and strokes the rabbit.


Example 10.119. 

la.teris.cusatrelemlatu.eleractu

Terry strokes the cat and the rabbit.


Suppose we wish to add a tense relationship to the logical connective and? To say that Terry strokes the cat and later strokes the rabbit, we can combine a logical connective with a tense connective by placing the logical connective first, then the tense, and then the cmavo bo, thus:

Example 10.120. 

la.teris.cusatrelemlatu.ijebabola.teris.cusatreleractu

Terry strokes the cat. And then Terry strokes the rabbit.


Example 10.121. 

la.teris.cusatrelemlatugi'ebabosatreleractu

Terry strokes the cat, and then strokes the rabbit.


Example 10.122. 

la.teris.cusatrelemlatu.ebaboleractu

Terry strokes the cat and then the rabbit.


Example 10.120 through Example 10.122 are equivalent in meaning. They are also analogous to Example 10.117 through Example 10.119 respectively. The bo is required for the same reason as in Example 10.110: to prevent the ba from functioning as a sumti tcita for the following sumti (or, in Example 10.121, from being attached to the following selbri).

In addition to the bo construction of Example 10.120 through Example 10.122, there is also a form of tensed logical connective with keke'e (tu'etu'u for sentences). The logical connective system makes Example 10.123 through Example 10.125 equivalent in meaning:

Example 10.123. 

mibevriledakli.ijetu'emibevrilegerku
Icarrythesack.And(Icarrythedog.
.ijamibevrilemlatutu'u
And/orIcarrythecat).

I carry the sack. And I carry the dog, or I carry the cat, or I carry both.


Example 10.124. 

mibevriledakligi'ekebevrilegerkugi'abevri
Icarrythesackand(carrythedogand/orcarry
lemlatu
thecat).

I carry the sack, and also carry the dog or carry the cat or carry both.


Example 10.125. 

mibevriledakli.ekelegerku.alemlatu
Icarrythesackand(thedogorthecat).

I carry the sack and also the dog or the cat or both.


Note the uniformity of the Lojban, as contrasted with the variety of ways in which the English provides for the correct grouping. In all cases, the meaning is that I carry the sack in any case, and either the cat or the dog or both.

To express that I carry the sack first (earlier in time), and then the dog or the cat or both simultaneously, I can insert tenses to form Example 10.126 through Example 10.128:

Example 10.126. 

mibevriledakli.ijebatu'emibevrilegerku
Icarrythesack.And[future](Icarrythedog.
.ijacabomibevrilemlatutu'u
And/or[present]Icarrythecat.)

I carry the sack. And then I will carry the dog or I will carry the cat or I will carry both at once.


Example 10.127. 

mibevriledakligi'ebakebevrilegerku
Icarrythesackand[future](carrythedog
gi'acabobevrilemlatu
and/or[present]carrythecat).

I carry the sack and then will carry the dog or carry the cat or carry both at once.


Example 10.128. 

mibevriledakli.ebakelegerku
Icarrythesackand[future](thedog
.acabolemlatu
and/or[present]thecat).

I carry the sack, and then the dog or the cat or both at once.


Example 10.126 through Example 10.128 are equivalent in meaning to each other, and correspond to the tenseless Example 10.123 through Example 10.125 respectively.