18.3. Signs and numerical punctuation

The following cmavo are discussed in this section:

ma'u

PA

positive sign

ni'u

PA

negative sign

pi

PA

decimal point

fi'u

PA

fraction slash

ra'e

PA

repeating decimal

ce'i

PA

percent sign

ki'o

PA

comma between digits

A number can be given an explicit sign by the use of ma'u and ni'u, which are the positive and negative signs as distinct from the addition, subtraction, and negation operators. For example:

Example 18.5. 

ni'upa
negative-sign1
-1

Grammatically, the signs are part of the number to which they are attached. It is also possible to use ma'u and ni'u by themselves as numbers; the meaning of these numbers is explained in Section 18.1.

Various numerical punctuation marks are likewise expressed by cmavo, as illustrated in the following examples:

Example 18.6. 

cipipavopamu
threepointonefouronefive
3.1415

(In some cultures, a comma is used instead of a period in the symbolic version of Example 18.6; pi is still the Lojban representation for the decimal point.)

Example 18.7. 

refi'uze
twofractionseven
2 7

Example 18.7 is the name of the number two-sevenths; it is not the same as the result of 2 divided by 7 in Lojban, although numerically these two are equal. If the denominator of the fraction is present but the numerator is not, the numerator is taken to be 1, thus expressing the reciprocal of the following number:

Example 18.8. 

fi'uze
fractionseven
1 7

Example 18.9. 

picimura'epavorebimuze
pointthreefiverepeatingonefourtwoeightfiveseven
.35142857142857...

Note that the ra'e marks unambiguously where the repeating portion 142857 begins.

Example 18.10. 

cimuce'i
threefivepercent
35%

Example 18.11. 

paki'orecivoki'omuxaze
onecommatwothreefourcommafivesixseven
1,234,567

(In some cultures, spaces are used in the symbolic representation of Example 18.11; ki'o is still the Lojban representation.)

It is also possible to have less than three digits between successive ki'o s, in which case zeros are assumed to have been elided:

Example 18.12. 

paki'oreciki'ovo
onecommatwothreecommafour
1,023,004

In the same way, ki'o can be used after pi to divide fractions into groups of three:

Example 18.13. 

piki'orere
pointcommatwotwo
.022

Example 18.14. 

pipaki'opareki'opa
pointonecommaonetwocommaone
.1012001