7.13. sumka'i and brika'i cancelling

The following cmavo are discussed in this section:

da'o

DAhO

cancel all sumka'i/brika'i

How long does a sumka'i or brika'i remain stable? In other words, once we know the referent of a sumka'i or brika'i, how long can we be sure that future uses of the same cmavo have the same referent? The answer to this question depends on which series the cmavo belongs to.

Personal sumka'i are stable until there is a change of speaker or listener, possibly signaled by a vocative. Assignable sumka'i and brika'i last indefinitely or until rebound with goi or cei. Bound variable sumka'i and brika'i also generally last until re-bound; details are available in Section 7.1.

Utterance sumka'i are stable only within the utterance in which they appear; similarly, reflexive sumka'i are stable only within the bridi in which they appear; and ke'a is stable only within its relative clause. Anaphoric sumka'i and brika'i are stable only within narrow limits depending on the rules for the particular cmavo.

Demonstrative sumka'i, indefinite sumka'i and brika'i, and sumti and bridi questions potentially change referents every time they are used.

However, there are ways to cancel all sumka'i and brika'i, so that none of them have known referents. (Some, such as mi, will acquire the same referent as soon as they are used again after the cancellation.) The simplest way to cancel everything is with the cmavo da'o of selma'o DAhO, which is used solely for this purpose; it may appear anywhere, and has no effect on the grammar of texts containing it. One use of da'o is when entering a conversation, to indicate that one's sumka'i assignments have nothing to do with any assignments already made by other participants in the conversation.

In addition, the cmavo ni'o and no'i of selma'o NIhO, which are used primarily to indicate shifts in topic, may also have the effect of canceling sumka'i and brika'i assignments, or of reinstating ones formerly in effect. More explanations of NIhO can be found in Section 7.1.