5.9. Other kinds of simple selbri

The following cmavo are discussed in this section:

go'i

GOhA

repeats the previous bridi

du

GOhA

equality

nu'a

NUhA

math operator to selbri

moi

MOI

changes number to ordinal selbri

mei

MOI

changes number to cardinal selbri

nu

NU

event abstraction

kei

KEI

terminator for NU

So far we have only discussed brivla and tanru built up from brivla as possible selbri. In fact, there are a few other constructions in Lojban which are grammatically equivalent to brivla: they can be used either directly as selbri, or as components in tanru. Some of these types of simple selbri are discussed at length in Chapter 5, Chapter 5, and Chapter 5; but for completeness these types are mentioned here with a brief explanation and an example of their use in selbri.

The cmavo of selma'o GOhA (with one exception) serve as brika'i, providing a reference to the content of other bridi; none of them has a fixed meaning. The most commonly used member of GOhA is probably go'i, which amounts to a repetition of the previous bridi, or part of it. If I say:

Example 5.89. 

la.djan.cuklamalezarci
That-namedJohngoes-tothemarket.

you may retort:

Example 5.90. 

la.djan.cugo'itroci
That-namedJohn[repeat-last]are-a-trier.

John tries to.


Example 5.90 is short for:

Example 5.91. 

la.djan.cuklamabelezarcibe'otroci
That-namedJohnis-a-goer(to-themarket)type-oftrier.

because the whole bridi of Example 5.89 has been packaged up into the single word go'i and inserted into Example 5.90.

The exceptional member of GOhA is du, which represents the relation of identity. Its place structure is:

x1 is identical with x2, x3, ...

for as many places as are given. More information on selma'o GOhA is available in Chapter 5.

Lojban mathematical expressions (mekso) can be incorporated into selbri in two different ways. Mathematical operators such as su'i, meaning plus, can be transformed into selbri by prefixing them with nu'a (of selma'o NUhA). The resulting place structure is:

x1 is the result of applying (the operator) to arguments x2, x3, etc.

for as many arguments as are required. (The result goes in the x1 place because the number of following places may be indefinite.) For example:

Example 5.92. 

livonu'a su'ilirelire
The-number4is-the-sum-ofthe-number2and-the-number2.

A possible tanru example might be:

Example 5.93. 

mijimpetu'aloinu'a su'inabmi
Iunderstandsomething-aboutthe-mass-ofis-the-sum-ofproblems.

I understand addition problems.


More usefully, it is possible to combine a mathematical expression with a cmavo of selma'o MOI to create one of various numerical selbri. Details are available in Section 5.1. Here are a few tanru:

Example 5.94. 

la.prim.palvr.cupamoicusku
That-namedPreemPalveris-the-1-thspeaker.

Preem Palver is the first speaker.


Example 5.95. 

la.anis.joila.asun.
That-namedAnyimassed-withthat-namedAsun
brunaremei
are-a-brothertype-of-twosome.

Anyi and Asun are two brothers.


Finally, an important type of simple selbri which is not a brivla is the abstraction. Grammatically, abstractions are simple: a cmavo of selma'o NU, followed by a bridi, followed by the elidable terminator kei of selma'o KEI. Semantically, abstractions are an extremely subtle and powerful feature of Lojban whose full ramifications are documented in Chapter 5. A few examples:

Example 5.96. 

tinuzdilekeikumfa
Thisis-an-event-ofamusementroom.

This is an amusement room.


Example 5.96 is quite distinct in meaning from:

Example 5.97. 

tizdilekumfa
Thisis-an-amuserroom.

which suggests the meaning a room that amuses someone.